FINAL Exam, Monday, May 7, 2018, 8 to 10
|Date last updated: 05/02/2018|
Georges Lemaitre (middle), Albert Einstein (right)
FINAL Exam, Monday, May 7, 2018, 8-10am
Lectures remaining, April, 7
Lectures remaining, May, 2
Courtesy, Brent Ballagh
Carbon Cycles, SOIL 5813, 2018
Jeanie Borlaug Laube Women in Triticum (WIT) Early Career Award
Class Projects / Research Ideas
Nutrient Management for Agronomic Crops (Nebraska)
Hand Planter Project
BOOK, Update 2015
9. Nitrogen Fertilization Optimization Algorithm and the use of CV's
10. R.A. Olson, Soil Testing
(Commercial Labs versus University Labs)
Paul Hodgen (Uptake of 15N by
Neighboring Corn Plants)
Broadcast Preplant versus Banded P
Buildup versus Maintenance
A Nutrient Mobility Concept of Soil Plant Relationships (Roger H. Bray, Univ. of Illinois, 1953) Sufficiency
Bray's Mobility Concept (PPT) Graphic Example
By-plant corn excavations (bottom)
Variability in Optimum Nitrogen Rates for Maize (Dhital and Raun, 2016) Does the Bundy paper make sense?
Catch UP (conclusions), Brixey 2006 CV less than 18, MaxYield obtained from mid-season N applications
SAS Programs Examples/homework (LAST week of class)
ABSTRACT EXERCISE (see examples on NUE)
N DEMAND, ABSTRACT
SENSOR BASED ALGORITHMS, ABSTRACT
What did The Check Plots Yield? (WORD DOCUMENT with SAS)
In long-term experiments, grain yields of the check plot (no N applied) can reveal added information about the environment when studied alone. The objective of this work was to further evaluate check plot yields and how they changed over time. Furthermore, changes in check plot yields were expected to provide a better understanding of fertilizer N response and yield potential. Two long-term experiments, were targeted for added analysis, Experiment 222 near Stillwater, OK, and Experiment 502, just west of Lahoma, OK. Check plots had the same variability over years as did the nitrogen (N) fertilized plots, with CV’s for both near 30%. Means and standard deviations (Experiment 502) were 1.76 ±0.53 and 2.95±0.92 Mg/ha for check and N fertilized plots, respectively.
World Phosphorus use Efficiency in Cereal Crops, ABSTRACT
FINAL: World Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Cereal Crops ABSTRACT A current estimate of global phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) for cereal production is not available. The objectives of this paper were to estimate PUE for cereal crops grown in the world and to review methods for improvement. Phosphorus use efficiency was determined using world cereal harvested area, total grain production, and phosphorus (P) fertilizer consumption from 1961 to 2013, in addition to assumptions established from previous literature. World PUE of cereal crops was calculated using both balance and difference methods. Using the balance method, cereal grain P uptake is divided by the P fertilizer applied. Alternatively, the difference method accounts for P coming from the soil and that is subtracted from applied P. Utilized in this analysis is the estimate that cereal production accounts for 61% of the total harvested cropland. Cereal grain yields increased from 1.35 Mg ha-1 to 3.90 Mg ha-1 between 1961 and 2013. In 1961, the world’s fertilizer P consumption was 4,770,182 Mg and increased to 16,662,470 Mg of P fertilizer by 2013. This represents a 3.5x increase in P fertilizer consumption over 53 years. Phosphorus use efficiency estimated using the balance method was 77%. Using the difference method, PUE for cereal production in the world was estimated to be 16%.
NEXT to Final: A current estimate of global phosphorus use efficiency for cereal production is not available. The objective of this paper was to estimate P use efficiency for cereal crops grown in the world today. Phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) was determined using world cereal harvested area, production, and P fertilizer consumption from 1961 to 2013, in addition to assumptions established from previous literature. World PUE of cereal crops was calculated as the amount of cereal grain P removed minus P in the grain coming from the soil and divided by the amount of P fertilizer applied. Utilized in this analysis was the value for cereal production, accounting for 47.9% to 61.3% of the total agricultural land. Cereal grain yields increased from 1.35 Mg ha-1 to 3.90 Mg ha-1 between 1961 and 2013. In 1961, the world’s fertilizer P consumption was 4,765,810 Mg and increased to 17,678,101 Mg of P fertilizer by 2013. This represents a 371% increase in P fertilizer consumption over 52 years. This study shows that world PUE of cereal crops are generally low, with considerable opportunity to promote improvements in the use of P fertilizers. Global PUE for cereal crops has ranged from 12 to 20% (1980 and 2008, respectively) with present estimates of 21 % in 2013.
Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Cereal Production (1999)
13. Nitrogen Cycle
Leguminous trees of the genera Sesbania,
Glyricidia, and Cajanus are interplanted into a
young maize crop and allowed to grow as fallows during dry seasons,
accumulating 100 to 200 kg N/ha over the period from 6 months to 2 years
in subhumid tropical regions of East and Southern Africa. The quantities
of nitrogen captured are similar to those applied as fertilizers by
commercial farmers to grow maize in
"The approach reported here is effective and more appropriate to current African conditions than those used during the Green Revolution. These “low-tech” but knowledge-intensive technologies should precede the promise of genetic engineering and other “high-tech” approaches, because without available nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil African farmers have no chance of succeeding."
Increased plant N loss with increasing nitrogen applied in winter wheat observed with 15N. J. Plant Nutr. 23:219-230. (pdf)
Radioisotopes (List) from Vose
Radioisotope Exercise (with answers)
READING ASSIGNMENTS, 2018
5813 BOOK, 2015
1. The Future of Agriculture: (Nature)
see Greenseeker/Marv Stone, John Solie
2. Estimated Increase in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Due to worldwide decrease in Soil Organic Matter3. Estimated land area increase of agricultural ecosystems to sequester excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 32:1803-1812. pdf
3. Estimated land area increase of agricultural ecosystems to sequester excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 32:1803-1812. (pdf)
Plant N Loss
4. Increased plant N loss with increasing nitrogen applied in winter wheat observed with 15N. J. Plant Nutr. 23:219-230.
5. Post-anthesis nitrogen loss from corn. Agron. J. 85:659-663. (Francis et al., 1981)
6. Effect of nitrogen rate on plant nitrogen loss in winter wheat varieties. Desta et al. (1997). J. of Plant Nutr. 20:389-404. (pdf)
7. Gaseous Nitrogen Loss from Soybean Foliage (Stutte)
Why is NUE in the world so important? Why are these numbers so useful?
8. Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Cereal Production Agron. J. 91:357-363
9. World Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Cereal Crops. Agron. J.
10. Cereal nitrogen use efficiency in Sub Saharan Africa. J. Plant Nutr. 32:2107-2122.
11. NEW York Times Article
12. Bogota, Colombia, No Car Day, Feb 1, 2018 (population 8.01 million, started in 2000).
13. The Ocean's Carbon Balance
World Contributing Factors
to Global Warming and Total Percentages of GHG Emission
14. Nitrogen Balance in the Magruder Plots Following 109 Years in Continuous Winter Wheat J. Plant Nutr. 26:1561-1580. (pdf)
15 a. Variability in Optimum Nitrogen Rates for Maize. Agron. J. 108:2165-2173. (doi:
15 b. excel file (ALL SITES) READ last sentence of SULU abstract
16. Independence of Yield Potential and Crop Nitrogen Response (2010). J. Prec. Agric.
17. Relationship between Grain Crop Yield Potential and Nitrogen Response. (2013). Agron. J.
18. What did the Check Plots yield? (excel file)
19. 502 Data Base
502 with and without N
a. have to be willing to learn
b. have to be willing to think about the final product
c. have to be willing to be wrong
d. have to be willing to not get any credit
20. Use of Stability Analysis for Long-Term Soil Fertility Experiments. Agron J. 85:159-167.
STABILITY ANALYSIS page (5112), from quiz question, Did Dr. Borlaug seek broad adaptation? Go to excel file, Sarah Battenfield
What defines "Environment?"
Beauty of stability analysis is recognizing that "environment" encompasses many variables. (elevation, temperature, soil pH, soil texture, weather, disease pressure, tillage, planting date, etc.)
Stability analysis recognizes that yield level is an indicator of "environment"
Do you want to review papers?
Raun, W.R., M. Golden, J. Dhillon, D. Aliddeki, E. Driver, S. Ervin, M. Diaite-Koumba, B. Jones, J. Lasquites, B. Figueiredo, M. Ramos Del Corso, N. Remondet, S. Zoca, P. Watkins, J. Mullock. 2017. Relationship between Mean Square Errors and Wheat Grain Yields in Long-Term Experiments. J. Plant Nutr.
21. Organic CARBON
21a. Ed Wellhausen on Borlaug page
22. Priming Effect of 15N-Labeled Fertilizers on Soil Nitrogen in Field Experiments. SSSAJ, 37:725-727.
23. Nitrogen Balance in the Magruder Plots Following 109 Years in Continuous Winter Wheat J. Plant Nutr. 26:1561-1580.
24. Moll et al., 1982. Analysis and Interpretation of Factors Which Contribute to Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization.
25. OSU, Categories, Moll et al., 1982 partitioned
26. Flowchart, for NUE (components questioned)
27. Cereal nitrogen use efficiency in Sub Saharan Africa. J. Plant Nutr. 32:2107-2122
Questions (Update, Nitrogen3) (includes N buffering, NH3 loss, carbon increase with N)
28. Soil-Plant Buffering of Inorganic Nitrogen in Continuous Winter Wheat
29. Seasonal and long-term changes in nitrate-nitrogen content of well water in Oklahoma. 1997. J. Environmental Quality, 26:1632-1637.
30. Critical NO3-N levels (why is groundwater in undisturbed landscapes not >10 ug/g?) Inorganic N Buffering?
31. Nitrous Oxide (Wikipedia)
32. Nitrous oxide emissions (since 1860).
33. Nitrogen Cycle and World Food Production (Smil)
34. Global Population and The Nitrogen Cycle. Smil
35. Haber Bosch (on N cycle)
nitric oxide (NO)
nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
nitrogen oxide pollutants (NOx)
nitrous oxide (N2O)
Great Pacific Garbage Patch
MESONET: PHP programming: HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) programming, SBNRC, hand-shaking - winter_wheat_in_ok.inc, MATH at the end.
>50% NUE? Our Approach, left side, NUE page
36. By Plant Variability (46 Transects)
also included is the 2005 AJ publication
37. By Plant Prediction (bottom of page)
Field Picture (plant excavation, go to Causes of Plant to Plant Variability (NUE page)
38. Plant to Plant Variability in Corn Production
39. The Case for By-Plant N Management
40. Variability in Optimum Nitrogen Rates for Maize. Agron. J. 108:2165-2173. (doi:
40.b RAMP Calibration Strip, manuscript (2008)
40.c Automated Calibration STAMP manuscript (2005)
41. Can Yield Goals Be Predicted? Agron. J. 109:5, 2389-2395.
42. YP0-RI_2: Relationship between Grain Crop Yield Potential and Nitrogen Response. Agron. J. 105:1335-1344.
43. YP0-RI_1: Independence of Yield Potential and Crop Nitrogen Response.
44. Nebraska Response to YP0-RI (Schepers, Holland, Precision Ag)
45. Dr. Bushong Review of 44
46. NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ALGORITHM (entire web page), PPT, 2003 (Nitrogen Fertilization Optimization Algorithm)
47. Economic and Agronomic Impacts of Varied Philosophies of Soil Testing, Olson et al. (1981)
48. EPA article, Vehicle CO2 emissions, GWP (global warming potential)
49. People dying due to hunger versus other causes (Graphic Example)
WEDNESDAY, April 25
(https://online.okstate.edu/) clicking the link labeled "Course Evaluations (SSI) - Stillwater, Tulsa, & CHS Campuses" in the "Course Evaluations" box on the main page.
CONTEXT / A
50. NUE, Missouri, Nitrogen efficiency in our N systems study fields
51. PUE, Johnston (New approach for PUE)
52. Sander et al. (1990) (Bands improve residual P)
53. Cereal nitrogen use efficiency in Sub Saharan Africa. J. Plant Nutr. 32:2107-2122
54. Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa
Fertilizer costs 2 to 6 times more
Rock phosphate - alternative
Transportation costs associated with lower P analysis?
55. Population 9 Billion
56. YP0-RI versus Sufficiency (does yield potential affect N demand)
1. Abstract from your work: Due, January 26, 2018
2. Compute World NUE for 2017: Due, February 2, 2018
(Economics, page on NUE web site)
(Methods to Determine NUE)
(http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home) FAO STAT
3. Generate a new "Carbon Cycle" that could fit like a puzzle piece into our current "Nitrogen Cycle", but that could run independently. Two cycles that you could envision running separately, but that depended on each other.
4. Group Carbon-Nitrogen Cycle
5. Why are YP0 and RI Independent? Random nature of Environment
6. RI_CV excel sheet
World's largest aid donors, billions (Sept, 2010)
United Kingdom, $12.0
CLASS READING 2018
4. Effect of long-term N fertilization on soil organic C and total N in continuous wheat under conventional tillage in Oklahoma
5. Influence of conservation tillage on soil properties. 1983. R.L.Blevins. (Harvest Index at high N)
6. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Continuous Winter Wheat in the Souther Great Plains.
From E.N. Ascencio thesis
7. Effect of long-term fertilization on soil organic C and total N in continuous wheat under conventional tillage in Oklahoma. (Soil Tillage Res. 47:323-330).
9. Evidence of dependence between crop vigor and yield. Prec. Agric. 13:276-284.
10. Equations for Estimating the Amount of Nitrogen Mineralized from Crop Residues. 1991. SSSAJ,55:757
11. N fertilizers decrease soil organic C. Mulvaney, Univ. Illinois.
12. JEQ Article, Khan and Mulvaney
13. High N rates can increase soil organic C, Soil and Tillage Research.
14. Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Timing in Sandy Irrigated Soils. 2005. Agron. J. 97:1230-1238.
Mulvaney: 15. Myth of NItrogen Fertilization for Soil Carbon Sequestration
Mulvaney: 16. Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilizers Deplete Soil Nitrogen: A Global Dilemma for Sustainable Cereal Production
Phillips: 17. Seasonal and long-term changes in nitrate-nitrogen content of well water in Oklahoma. 1997. J. Environmental Quality, 26:1632-1637.
Mulvaney 18. Need for a Soil-Based Approach in Managing Nitrogen Fertilizers for Profitable Corn Production
20. Soil Plant Inorganic N Buffering, 199521. Concepts and Rationale for Regional Nitrogen Rate Guidelines for Corn (Sawyer, Nafziger, Randall, Bundy, Rehm, Joern)
22. Post-anthesis nitrogen loss from corn. Agron. J. 85:659-663.
23. Increased plant N loss with increasing nitrogen applied in winter wheat observed with 15N. J. Plant Nutr. 23:219-230. (pdf)
24. Effect of nitrogen rate on plant nitrogen loss in winter wheat varieties. J. of Plant Nutr. 20 (2&3):389-404.
25. Freeze mitigation
26. What to expect, CV, NDVI, and Yield (Mexico Trip, OSU Students)
27. GM crops, world statistics, CLIVE JAMES
Clive James (Word Document)
28. Consumers afraid of Biotech?
29. Why people oppose GMO's even though Science says they are safe (Scientific American) read last paragraph
30. Cheerios USA Today
"I have heard it said that the average person is lucky to have only a handful of true friends in their lifetime. Well, I sincerely feel I've got millions. John Wooden once told me "I would rather believe in people and be disappointed some of the time than never believe and be disapppointed all of the time." JN
Nitrogen Uptake Exercise
N Uptake Excel File
1. Becoming a Nitrogen Cycle Ninja (Bloomington, IL, Feb 3, 2015)
2. Nitrogen Cycle Ninja (Manuscript)
3. N Deposits in Rainfall
4. Equations for Estimating the Amount of Nitrogen Mineralized from Crop Residues Vigil and Kissel, 1991
5. Independence of YP0 and RI
6. Independence of YPO and RI2
(reviewer response 1)
(reviewer response 2)
7. Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency, 1999, AJ
(excel file 2010)
8. Global Population and Nitrogen Cycle (V. Smil)
9. Bray Mobility Concept (A Nutrient Mobility Concept of Soil-Palnt Relationships)
10. Investment in By-Plant Technology
Presentation, November 5, 2012, Dr. Bobby Stewart
Multilingual Crop Nutrient Removal Calculator
World Watch Institute, Is Meat Sustainable?
IPNI Crop Nutrient Deficiency Image Collection
Yield Trends are Insufficient to Double Global Production
Homework. What are the Top
5 sources for global warming, including estimates, estimate of the total,
and the error in your estimate. Need 5 citable
references. As best you can,
make your "homework" an Abstract.
(see page 12, ASA Manuscript Preparation)
Compute the number of days from planting to sensing, where growth was possible (40°F Threshhold) for a planting date of October 1, 2015, Sensing Date of February 21, 2016 (Locations, all 4-Payne County, Altus, Woodward)
Homework #x (included in the excel sheet)
ABSTRACT (from class) needs numbers (% overestimation, largest sink was ....