Spring 2018    
   Syllabus
FINAL Exam, Monday, May 7, 2018, 8 to 10
      Date last updated: 05/02/2018
Norman Borlaug endorses the GreenSeeker Sensor system developed at OSUNitrogen Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Fertilizers, NUE, Nitrogen and the EnvironmentClass IntroductionGeorges Lemaitre and Albert Einstein
        Steven Chu

Georges Lemaitre (middle), Albert Einstein (right)

FINAL Exam, Monday, May 7, 2018,
  8-10am

Lectures remaining, April, 7
Lectures remaining, May, 2

OSU Calendar
ASA Abstract 
Central America Soils   ALL Quizes    

Global Warming Web Site   China, Program Efficiency Courtesy, Brent Ballagh

Carbon Cycles, SOIL 5813, 2018

Jeanie Borlaug Laube Women in Triticum (WIT) Early Career Award

Class Projects / Research Ideas

Nutrient Management for Agronomic Crops (Nebraska)

Hand Planter Project

BOOK, Update 2015

1. Organic Carbon (Ranney Paper, OC conversion

www.co2now.org

Brazil C-Stocks

Nutrient Content of Crops, USDA

2. History of Yield Potential

(Can Yield Goals be Predicted?) Published, Agronomy Journal

3. Nitrogen


new ISU N rate Calculator

4. Nitrogen Accumulation Page (NUE.okstate.edu,
Articles at the bottom)

5. Amino Sugar N test (J. Bushong)

6. Rice NUE, (J. Bushong)

N Cycle (dial)

7. Nitrogen Use Efficiency (Review)

8. Theoretical Applications

Appendix 8:  Phosphorus Solubility

N03_N (NO3-N, NH4-N with time)

502 SBNRC 502, SBNRC, 100 pre

502, Yield Differences over time 502 Yield Differences over time

9. Nitrogen Fertilization Optimization Algorithm and the use of CV's

10. R.A. Olson, Soil Testing  (Commercial Labs versus University Labs) 
        Who is serving as the Judge?  Law?

Steven Chu
Check Plots
 

Check Plots 502 check yield versus fertilized yield N Cycle


Paul Hodgen (Uptake of 15N by Neighboring Corn Plants)
What does this look like?  Corn plants spaced 7 in (18cm) apart?
Drawing/Illustration)

 PHOSPHORUS

(P Web Page) DUAL PLACEMENT

Horizontal Bands
Phosphorus Solubility

Broadcast Preplant versus Banded P
Maintenance versus Sufficiency (Roger Bray)

Buildup versus Maintenance
Nebraska MEAD Study. R.A. Olson 

Phosphorus Question?  P + Urea + CaSO4 (Document)

University of Nebraska

   BRAY  

A Nutrient Mobility Concept of Soil Plant Relationships (Roger H. Bray, Univ. of Illinois, 1953) Sufficiency

Bray's Mobility Concept (PPT) Graphic Example

By-plant corn excavations (bottom)

NCR-rate recommendations, Bundy  (no change in N Rates over time?)

Variability in Optimum Nitrogen Rates for Maize (Dhital and Raun, 2016) Does the Bundy paper make sense?

Catch UP (conclusions), Brixey 2006  CV less than 18, MaxYield obtained from mid-season N applications

A. Algorithm Page (Sufficiency approach, leap of faith)

B. OSU Algorithms

CV-RI (excel file, sensitivity analysis, homework)

Concept, CV-RI (excel file)

CV RI Homework

SAS Programs Examples/homework (LAST week of class)

ABSTRACT EXERCISE  (see examples on NUE)

N DEMAND, ABSTRACT
Maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield levels and the response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) are expected to change from year to year and location to location.  Because yield level and N response have been documented to be independent, and known to influence N demand, optimum N rates at the same location are expected to change each year due to unpredictable changes in the environment. The objective was to further analyze maize grain yield levels and optimum fertilizer N rates from published data in the Central Great Plains of the United States. Optimum N rates were determined by calculating the difference in N uptake between the highest yielding plot and the check plot (no N applied). The difference in grain N uptake between the fertilized and zero-N check plot was then divided by 0.33 (average N use efficiency) to estimate optimum N rate, by site and year. For the 198 site-years of data included, grain yields in both the high N rate, and check (0-N) plots were highly variable.  Also, optimum N rates fluctuated from year to year at all locations. Optimum N rates were not highly correlated with the high N rate yield (R2=0.20) or zero-N check yield (R2=0.16). The wide range in optimum N rates observed in all maize experiments suggests the need to adjust N rates by year and location. This is possible using mid-season sensor based technologies that can accurately predict yield potential (expected yield level), and simultaneously encumber N responsiveness known to be independent of yield. 

SENSOR BASED ALGORITHMS, ABSTRACT
The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objectives of this work were to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms presently being used in cereal grain production systems for improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and cereal grain yields. A review of research programs in the Central Great Plains that have developed sensor-based nitrogen (N) recommendations for cereal crops was performed. Algorithms included multiple land-grant university, government, and industry programs. A common thread in this review is the use of active sensors, particularly those using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for quantifying differences in fertilized and non-fertilized areas, within a specific cropping season. In-season prediction of yield potential over different sites and years is possible using NDVI, planting date, sensing date, cumulative growing degree days (GDD), and rainfall. Other in-season environment-specific inputs have also been used. Early passive sensors have advanced to by-plant N fertilization using active NDVI and by-plant statistical properties.
  Most recently, sensor-based algorithm research has focused on the development of generalized mathematical models for determining optimal crop N application. The development and promotion of fee-based modeling approaches for nutrient management continues.  Nonetheless, several algorithms using active sensors for in-season N management are available from state and government sources at no cost and that have been extensively field tested and can be modified by producers...... 

For Iowa (largest tonnage of fertilizer N purchased and applied in the US), this has become somewhat uncomfortable as within-state lawsuits have been filed against maize (Zea mays L.) producers surrounding the Des Moines and Raccoon rivers for over applying N (Charles, 2015). Solutions exist but involve practices that will require a significant investment in equipment and management (Roberts et al., 2012).

What did The Check Plots Yield?  (WORD DOCUMENT with SAS)

In long-term experiments, grain yields of the check plot (no N applied) can reveal added information about the environment when studied alone.  The objective of this work was to further evaluate check plot yields and how they changed over time.  Furthermore, changes in check plot yields were expected to provide a better understanding of fertilizer N response and yield potential.  Two long-term experiments, were targeted for added analysis, Experiment 222 near Stillwater, OK, and Experiment 502, just west of Lahoma, OK.   Check plots had the same variability over years as did the nitrogen (N) fertilized plots, with CV’s for both near 30%.  Means and standard deviations (Experiment 502) were 1.76 ±0.53 and 2.95±0.92 Mg/ha for check and N fertilized plots, respectively. 

World Phosphorus use Efficiency in Cereal Crops, ABSTRACT

FINAL:  World Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Cereal Crops ABSTRACT A current estimate of global phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) for cereal production is not available. The objectives of this paper were to estimate PUE for cereal crops grown in the world and to review methods for improvement. Phosphorus use efficiency was determined using world cereal harvested area, total grain production, and phosphorus (P) fertilizer consumption from 1961 to 2013, in addition to assumptions established from previous literature. World PUE of cereal crops was calculated using both balance and difference methods. Using the balance method, cereal grain P uptake is divided by the P fertilizer applied. Alternatively, the difference method accounts for P coming from the soil and that is subtracted from applied P. Utilized in this analysis is the estimate that cereal production accounts for 61% of the total harvested cropland. Cereal grain yields increased from 1.35 Mg ha-1 to 3.90 Mg ha-1 between 1961 and 2013. In 1961, the world’s fertilizer P consumption was 4,770,182 Mg and increased to 16,662,470 Mg of P fertilizer by 2013. This represents a 3.5x increase in P fertilizer consumption over 53 years. Phosphorus use efficiency estimated using the balance method was 77%.  Using the difference method, PUE for cereal production in the world was estimated to be 16%. 

NEXT to Final:  A current estimate of global phosphorus use efficiency for cereal production is not available. The objective of this paper was to estimate P use efficiency for cereal crops grown in the world today. Phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) was determined using world cereal harvested area, production, and P fertilizer consumption from 1961 to 2013, in addition to assumptions established from previous literature. World PUE of cereal crops was calculated as the amount of cereal grain P removed minus P in the grain coming from the soil and divided by the amount of P fertilizer applied. Utilized in this analysis was the value for cereal production, accounting for 47.9% to 61.3% of the total agricultural land. Cereal grain yields increased from 1.35 Mg ha-1 to 3.90 Mg ha-1 between 1961 and 2013. In 1961, the world’s fertilizer P consumption was 4,765,810 Mg and increased to 17,678,101 Mg of P fertilizer by 2013. This represents a 371% increase in P fertilizer consumption over 52 years. This study shows that world PUE of cereal crops are generally low, with considerable opportunity to promote improvements in the use of P fertilizers. Global PUE for cereal crops has ranged from 12 to 20% (1980 and 2008, respectively) with present estimates of 21 % in 2013.

 

Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Cereal Production (1999)

Abstract

Worldwide, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for cereal production (wheat, Triticum aestivum L., corn, Zea mays L., rice, Oryza sativa L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L. sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, L. , millet, Pennisetum glaucum L., oats, Avena sativa L. and rye, Secale cereale L.) is approximately 33%.  The unaccounted 67% represents a $15.9 billion annual loss of N fertilizer (assuming fertilizer-soil equilibrium).  Loss of fertilizer N results from gaseous plant emission, soil denitrification, surface runoff, volatilization, and leaching.  Increased cereal NUE is unlikely unless a systems approach is implemented that uses varieties with high harvest index, incorporated NH4-N fertilizer, application of prescribed rates consistent with in-field variability using sensor-based systems within production fields, low N rates applied at flowering, and forage production systems.  Furthermore, increased cereal NUE must accompany increased yields needed to feed a growing world population that has yet to benefit from the promise of N-fixing cereal crops.  The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) linked with advanced research programs at universities and research institutes is uniquely positioned to refine fertilizer N use in the world via the extension of improved NUE hybrids/varieties and management practices in both the developed and developing world.

SBNRC-IOWA, Russ Linhardt (also, 2010, 2011 wheat) (502 testing of SBNRC?)

Use of GDD, INSEY, Mesonet

World Computation of NUE (Agronomy Journal 1999, 91:357)

Yield Level, N Demand

SED
-----------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------
STOP, end of material for spring 2016

 

N Cycle (Yield Level, N Response)

10. SPATIAL N Variability

12. Foliar UAN for Mitigating Frost Damage

13. Nitrogen Cycle

Rates of Salt (N+K2O) that can be applied with the seed (1986 Fertilizer Solutions Article)

Spring2014/IMG_x.pdf

14. Argentina, NO-TILL
Success

Leguminous trees of the genera Sesbania, Tephrosia, Crotalaria, Glyricidia, and Cajanus are interplanted into a young maize crop and allowed to grow as fallows during dry seasons, accumulating 100 to 200 kg N/ha over the period from 6 months to 2 years in subhumid tropical regions of East and Southern Africa. The quantities of nitrogen captured are similar to those applied as fertilizers by commercial farmers to grow maize in
developed countries.

"The approach reported here is effective and more appropriate to current African conditions than those used during the Green Revolution. These “low-tech” but knowledge-intensive technologies should precede the promise of genetic engineering and other “high-tech” approaches, because without available nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil African farmers have no chance of succeeding."

17.  Radioisotopes
supplemental lecture

Increased plant N loss with increasing nitrogen applied in winter wheat observed with 15N.  J. Plant Nutr. 23:219-230. (pdf)

n15 output Mass Spec Output

Radiation dose chart

Radioisotopes (List) from Vose

ETHANOL

18. Added Topics, Cellulosic Ethanol,

Biofuels lead to food shortages

Biofools (The Economist)

19. Direct Seeding in Argentina (Agustin Bianchini)

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9. Biometrical Applications (class survey)
Stability Analysis (excel)
Stability Analysis 502

REVIEW

(Soybean N Balance, Andres Patrignani, Romulo Lollato.)

Andres Patrignani- Wheat yield plateau

https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/view/first-look/aj14-0011.pdf

12. Biofools

13. Ethanol

US Military
(
wikipediaMilitary Consumption of Energy

14. Resurgent Forests Can be Greenhouse Sponges (Science)


16
. The Magruder Plots, Untangling the Puzzle.  (Agron J. 1191-1198)

17.  The Story of Wheat (from the Economist.com)

Radioisotope Exercise (with answers)

Independence of YP0 and RI

Independence of YP0 and RI-2

NEWTON
Inverse Distance Square Law


READING ASSIGNMENTS, 2018  5813 BOOK, 2015

1. The Future of Agriculture: (Nature)

see Greenseeker/Marv Stone, John Solie

2. Estimated  Increase in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Due to worldwide decrease in Soil Organic Matter3. Estimated land area increase of agricultural ecosystems to sequester excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 32:1803-1812. pdf


3. Estimated land area increase of agricultural ecosystems to sequester excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 32:1803-1812. (pdf)
ss

Plant N Loss
4. Increased plant N loss with increasing nitrogen applied in winter wheat observed with 15N.  J. Plant Nutr. 23:219-230.

5. 
Post-anthesis nitrogen loss from corn. Agron. J. 85:659-663. (Francis et al., 1981)


6. Effect of nitrogen rate on plant nitrogen loss in winter wheat varieties.  Desta et al. (1997). J. of Plant Nutr. 20:389-404. (
pdf)

7.
 Gaseous Nitrogen Loss from Soybean Foliage
(Stutte)


NUE over time

Why is NUE in the world so important?  Why are these numbers so useful?

8. Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Cereal Production  Agron. J. 91:357-363 (pdf)

9. World Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Cereal Crops. Agron. J.

10. Cereal nitrogen use efficiency in Sub Saharan Africa. J. Plant Nutr. 32:2107-2122.

11. NEW York Times Article

12. Bogota, Colombia, No Car Day, Feb 1, 2018 (population 8.01 million, started in 2000).

13. The Ocean's Carbon Balance

World Contributing Factors to Global Warming and Total Percentages of GHG Emission (Gwen Wehmeyer)

Factors

GHG (Greenhouse Gas)

Percentage

Reference

Electricity

CO2 (carbon dioxide)

70%

A.

Livestock

CH4 (methane)

35%

G.

Tillage

CO2 (carbon dioxide)

6-25% (mean: 15.5%)

D.

Deforestation

CO2 (carbon dioxide)

21%

F.

Transportation

CO2 (carbon dioxide)

14%

B.

TOTAL:

 

155.5%

 


14. Nitrogen Balance in the Magruder Plots Following 109 Years in Continuous Winter Wheat  J. Plant Nutr.  26:1561-1580. (pdf)

15 a. Variability in Optimum Nitrogen Rates for Maize. Agron. J. 108:2165-2173. (doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0139)  SULU


  15 b. excel file (ALL SITES)  READ last sentence of SULU abstract

16. Independence of Yield Potential and Crop Nitrogen Response (2010). J. Prec. Agric.

17. Relationship between Grain Crop Yield Potential and Nitrogen Response. (2013). Agron. J.

18. What did the Check Plots yield? (excel file) 

19. 502 Data Base
  502 with and without N
  502 site

a. have to be willing to learn
b. have to be willing to think about the final product
c. have to be willing to be wrong
d. have to be willing to not get any credit

502, 1971 to 2017

20. Use of Stability Analysis for Long-Term Soil Fertility Experiments.  Agron J. 85:159-167.

STABILITY ANALYSIS page (5112), from quiz question, Did Dr. Borlaug seek broad adaptation?  Go to excel file, Sarah Battenfield

Magrduer EMAG_17

What defines "Environment?"

Beauty of stability analysis is recognizing that "environment" encompasses many variables. (elevation, temperature, soil pH, soil texture, weather, disease pressure, tillage, planting date, etc.)

Stability analysis recognizes that yield level is an indicator of "environment"

Do you want to review papers? 

Raun, W.R., M. Golden, J. Dhillon, D. Aliddeki, E. Driver, S. Ervin, M. Diaite-Koumba, B. Jones, J. Lasquites, B. Figueiredo, M. Ramos Del Corso, N. Remondet, S. Zoca, P. Watkins, J. Mullock. 2017. Relationship between Mean Square Errors and Wheat Grain Yields in Long-Term Experiments. J. Plant Nutr.


21.  Organic CARBON

21a. Ed Wellhausen on Borlaug page

22.  Priming Effect of 15N-Labeled Fertilizers on Soil Nitrogen in Field Experiments. SSSAJ, 37:725-727.

23. Nitrogen Balance in the Magruder Plots Following 109 Years in Continuous Winter Wheat  J. Plant Nutr.  26:1561-1580.

N Cycle

NUE Definitions


24. Moll et al., 1982.  Analysis and Interpretation of Factors Which Contribute to Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization.

25. OSU, Categories, Moll et al., 1982 partitioned


26. Flowchart, for NUE (components questioned)


27.
Cereal nitrogen use efficiency in Sub Saharan Africa. J. Plant Nutr. 32:2107-2122


Nitrogen Cycle
 
Questions (Update, Nitrogen3) (includes N buffering, NH3 loss, carbon increase with N)

28. Soil-Plant Buffering of Inorganic Nitrogen in Continuous Winter Wheat

29. Seasonal and long-term changes in nitrate-nitrogen content of well water in Oklahoma.  1997.  J. Environmental Quality, 26:1632-1637.


30. Critical NO3-N levels (why is groundwater in undisturbed landscapes not >10 ug/g?)  Inorganic N Buffering?


31. Nitrous Oxide (Wikipedia)

32. Nitrous oxide emissions (since 1860).


33. Nitrogen Cycle and World Food Production (Smil)

34. Global Population and The Nitrogen Cycle. Smil

35. Haber Bosch (on N cycle)

nitric oxide (NO)
nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
nitrogen oxide pollutants (NOx)
nitrous oxide (N2O)

TIKAL Archaeology

Great Pacific Garbage Patch

407CO2

MESONET:  PHP programming:  HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) programming, SBNRC, hand-shaking - winter_wheat_in_ok.inc, MATH at the end.


>50% NUE? Our Approach, left side, NUE page



BY-PLANT, CORN

36.
By Plant Variability (46 Transects)

also included is the 2005 AJ publication


37. By Plant Prediction (bottom of page)


 Field Picture (plant excavation, go to Causes of Plant to Plant Variability (NUE page)


38. Plant to Plant Variability in Corn Production
 
39. The Case for By-Plant N Management

40.
Variability in Optimum Nitrogen Rates for Maize. Agron. J. 108:2165-2173. (doi:10.2134/agronj2016.03.0139)

40.a http://nue.okstate.edu/Spatial_N_Variability.htm

40.b RAMP Calibration Strip, manuscript (2008)

40.c Automated Calibration STAMP manuscript (2005)


502 Yield Increase

Prior year yield increase versus MAX

41. Can Yield Goals Be Predicted? Agron. J. 109:5, 2389-2395.

42. YP0-RI_2:  Relationship between Grain Crop Yield Potential and Nitrogen Response.  Agron. J. 105:1335-1344.

43. YP0-RI_1:  Independence of Yield Potential and Crop Nitrogen Response.

44. Nebraska Response to YP0-RI (Schepers, Holland, Precision Ag)

45. Dr. Bushong Review of 44

46. NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ALGORITHM (entire web page),
PPT, 2003 (Nitrogen Fertilization Optimization Algorithm)

47. Economic and Agronomic Impacts of Varied Philosophies of Soil Testing, Olson et al. (1981)

48. 
EPA article, Vehicle CO2 emissions, GWP (global warming potential)

49. People dying due to hunger versus other causes (Graphic Example)

WEDNESDAY, April 25
(https://online.okstate.edu/) clicking the link labeled "Course Evaluations (SSI) - Stillwater, Tulsa, & CHS Campuses" in the "Course Evaluations" box on the main page.

CONTEXT / A

50. NUE, Missouri, Nitrogen efficiency in our N systems study fields

51. PUE, Johnston (New approach for PUE)

52. Sander et al. (1990) (Bands improve residual P)

53. Cereal nitrogen use efficiency in Sub Saharan Africa. J. Plant Nutr. 32:2107-2122

54. Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa
Fertilizer costs 2 to 6 times more
Rock phosphate - alternative


Transportation costs associated with lower P analysis?

55. Population 9 Billion

56.  YP0-RI versus Sufficiency (does yield potential affect N demand)



Homework 2018: 

1. Abstract from your work:  Due, January 26, 2018

2. Compute World NUE for 2017: Due, February 2, 2018

  (Economics, page on NUE web site
)
  (Methods to Determine NUE)
 
(http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home
)  FAO STAT

3.  Generate a new "Carbon Cycle" that could fit like a puzzle piece into our current "Nitrogen Cycle", but that could run independently.  Two cycles that you could envision running separately, but that depended on each other.

4. Group Carbon-Nitrogen Cycle

5. Why are YP0 and RI Independent?  Random nature of Environment

6. RI_CV excel sheet

World's largest aid donors, billions (Sept, 2010)
USA, $27.8
Japan, 17.5
Germany, $16.0
France, $12.5
United Kingdom, $12.0  


----------------------------------


CLASS READING 2018




4. Effect of long-term N fertilization on soil organic C and total N in continuous wheat under conventional tillage in Oklahoma

5. Influence of conservation tillage on soil properties. 1983. R.L.Blevins.   (Harvest Index at high N)

6. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Continuous Winter Wheat in the Souther Great Plains.


NO3 and NH4 Accumulation over time, 222 From E.N. Ascencio thesis

7. Effect of long-term fertilization on soil organic C and total N in continuous wheat under conventional tillage in Oklahoma. (Soil Tillage Res. 47:323-330).

9. Evidence of dependence between crop vigor and yield.  Prec. Agric. 13:276-284.

10. Equations for Estimating the Amount of Nitrogen Mineralized from Crop Residues. 1991. SSSAJ,55:757

11.  N fertilizers decrease soil organic C. Mulvaney, Univ. Illinois.

12. JEQ Article, Khan and Mulvaney

13.
High N rates can increase soil organic C, Soil and Tillage Research.


14. Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Timing in Sandy Irrigated Soils. 2005. Agron. J. 97:1230-1238.

REVIEW (CO2)

Mulvaney: 15. Myth of NItrogen Fertilization for Soil Carbon Sequestration

Mulvaney: 16. 
Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilizers Deplete Soil Nitrogen: A Global Dilemma for Sustainable Cereal Production

Phillips: 17. Seasonal and long-term changes in nitrate-nitrogen content of well water in Oklahoma.  1997.  J. Environmental Quality, 26:1632-1637.

Mulvaney 18. Need for a Soil-Based Approach in Managing Nitrogen Fertilizers for Profitable Corn Production

19. Westerman, NH4 and NO3 Accumulation

20. Soil Plant Inorganic N Buffering, 1995

(SOIL 5112, SAS Programs)

21. Concepts and Rationale for Regional Nitrogen Rate Guidelines for Corn (Sawyer, Nafziger, Randall, Bundy, Rehm, Joern)


22.  Post-anthesis nitrogen loss from corn. Agron. J. 85:659-663.

23.
 Increased plant N loss with increasing nitrogen applied in winter wheat observed with 15N.  J. Plant Nutr. 23:219-230. (pdf)

24.
  Effect of nitrogen rate on plant nitrogen loss in winter wheat varieties. J. of Plant Nutr. 20 (2&3):389-404.

25. Freeze mitigation

26.  What to expect, CV, NDVI, and Yield (Mexico Trip, OSU Students)


GMO's
-------------------------------
27.
  GM crops, world statistics, CLIVE JAMES

Clive James (Word Document) 


28.  Consumers afraid of Biotech?

29.  Why people oppose GMO's even though Science says they are safe (Scientific American) read last paragraph


30. Cheerios USA Today


 
"I have heard it said that the average person is lucky to have only a handful of true friends in their lifetime.  Well, I sincerely feel I've got millions.  John Wooden once told me "I would rather believe in people and be disappointed some of the time than never believe and be disapppointed all of the time."  JN


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Nitrogen Uptake Exercise

N Uptake Excel File



 RI_CV

    

READING

_________________________________________________
____________________________________________

1. Becoming a Nitrogen Cycle Ninja (Bloomington, IL, Feb 3, 2015) 

2. Nitrogen Cycle Ninja (Manuscript)

3. N Deposits in Rainfall

4. Equations for Estimating the Amount of Nitrogen Mineralized from Crop Residues Vigil and Kissel, 1991


5. Independence of YP0 and RI

6. Independence of YPO and RI2

(reviewer response 1)
(reviewer response 2)
7. Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency, 1999, AJ
(excel file 2010)

8. Global Population and Nitrogen Cycle (V. Smil)


FAOSTAT

HOMEWORK 1

9.  Bray Mobility Concept (A Nutrient Mobility Concept of Soil-Palnt Relationships)

10. Investment in By-Plant Technology

MISSION II

Presentation, November 5, 2012, Dr. Bobby Stewart

Multilingual Crop Nutrient Removal Calculator

http://ipni.info/calculator



World Watch Institute, Is Meat Sustainable?

IPNI Crop Nutrient Deficiency Image Collection



Yield Trends are Insufficient to Double Global Production

 Feeding our World (link)

2 lbs N/bu of wheat (recommendation)

 

Article

 on Kernza, Univ. Minnesota



LIMUS Nitrogen Management, BASF

 BAE Article, Dr. Borlaug

 

 

EXAMS

First Hour Exam 2004

Second Hour Exam 2002

Statistical Applications

FINAL EXAM 2002, KEY

FINAL EXAM 2004, KEY

FINAL EXAM 2006

Final Exam 2008 KEY

FINAL Exam (example)
FINAL Exam 2014 (actual)
Proficiency Exam (for nutrient Mgmt Students)

   

 

  Homework.  What are the Top 5 sources for global warming, including estimates, estimate of the total, and the error in your estimate.  Need 5 citable references. As best you can, make your "homework" an Abstract.

(see page 12, ASA Manuscript Preparation)

Homework #x
  Experiment 406
  Experiment 407

Homework #x

Compute the number of days from planting to sensing, where growth was possible (40°F Threshhold) for a planting date of October 1, 2015, Sensing Date of February 21, 2016 (Locations, all 4-Payne County, Altus, Woodward)

Homework #x (included in the excel sheet)


ABSTRACT (from class) needs numbers (% overestimation, largest sink was ....