Spring 2014    
Norman Borlaug endorses the GreenSeeker Sensor system developed at OSU
FINAL Exam, Friday, May 2, 2014 , 8:00-9:20

FINAL Exam 2014

Hand Planter Project

ASA Abstract

2014 Class Project

2 lb N/bu (60 lb N/bu wheat),
50% of N in grain comes from soil/atmospheric deposition, 2.39% N in the grain
____ fertilizer use efficiency

1. Organic Carbon (Ranney Paper, OC conversion)

Brazil C-Stocks

2. N fertilizers decrease soil organic C, Khan and Mulvaney
3. JEQ Article, Khan and Mulvaney
High N rates can increase soil organic C,

Nutrient Content of Crops, USDA

4. History of Yield Potential

5. Nitrogen

    Nitrogen Accumulation Page (NUE.okstate.edu,
Articles at the bottom)

   N Cycle (dial)

  Amino Sugar N test (J. Bushong)

   Rice NUE, (J. Bushong)

   (Soybean N Balance, Andres Patrignani, Romulo Lollato.)

(P Web Page) DUAL PLACEMENT/Horizontal Bands/Phosphorus Solubility

6. Nitrogen Use Efficiency (Review)

7. Theoretical Applications

N03_N (NO3-N, NH4-N with time)

502 SBNRC 502, SBNRC, 100 pre

502, Yield Differences over time 502 Yield Differences over time

     R.A. Olson, Soil Testing  (Commercial Labs versus University Labs)

Paul Hodgen (Uptake of 15N by Neighboring Corn Plants)
What does this look like?  Corn plants spaced 7 in (18cm) apart?
Drawing/Illustration (Bruno Figueiredo)

 8. Nitrogen Fertilization Optimization Algorithm and the use of CV's

SBNRC-IOWA, Russ Linhardt (also, 2010, 2011 wheat)


Catch UP (go to conclusions), Brixey 2006

Concept, CV-RI (excel file)

     CV RI Homework


NCR-rate recommendations, 1 Bundy

1. Lahoma 502 (updated) 2014
2. Magruder 2014
3. Stillwater 222 (updated) 2014

Yield Level, N Demand (4/7/2014)


NUE, Missouri, Nitrogen efficiency in our N systems study fields

9. P Solubility.
PUE Review

a. Syers (Efficiency of soil and fertilizer phosphorus use)
b. Johnston (New approach for PUE)

c. Sander et al. (1990)

(N publications)
(Agronomy Journal, Most Cited)

N Cycle (Yield Level, N Response)

10. SPATIAL N Variability

11. Cereal nitrogen use efficiency in Sub Saharan Africa. J. Plant Nutr. 32:2107-2122

12. Foliar UAN for Mitigating Frost Damage

13. Nitrogen Cycle

Rates of Salt (N+K2O) that can be applied with the seed (1986 Fertilizer Solutions Article)


14. Argentina, NO-TILL

16. Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa
Fertilizer costs 2 to 6 times more
Rock phosphate - alternative

Leguminous trees of the genera Sesbania, Tephrosia, Crotalaria, Glyricidia, and Cajanus are interplanted into a young maize crop and allowed to grow as fallows during dry seasons, accumulating 100 to 200 kg N/ha over the period from 6 months to 2 years in subhumid tropical regions of East and Southern Africa. The quantities of nitrogen captured are similar to those applied as fertilizers by commercial farmers to grow maize in
developed countries.

"The approach reported here is effective and more appropriate to current African conditions than those used during the Green Revolution. These “low-tech” but knowledge-intensive technologies should precede the promise of genetic engineering and other “high-tech” approaches, because without available nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil African farmers have no chance of succeeding."

17.  Radioisotopes
supplemental lecture

Increased plant N loss with increasing nitrogen applied in winter wheat observed with 15N.  J. Plant Nutr. 23:219-230. (pdf)

n15 output Mass Spec Output

Radiation dose chart

Radioisotopes (List) from Vose


18. Added Topics, Cellulosic Ethanol,

Biofuels lead to food shortages

Biofools (The Economist)

Difficulty in making ethanol from cellulose

19. Direct Seeding in Argentina (Agustin Bianchini)



Population 9 Billion

9. Biometrical Applications (class survey)
Stability Analysis (excel)
Stability Analysis 502



Andres Patrignani- Wheat yield plateau




12. Biofools

13. Ethanol

US Military

14. Resurgent Forests Can be Greenhouse Sponges (Science)

15. Corn Farmers Making Money

. The Magruder Plots, Untangling the Puzzle.  (Agron J. 1191-1198)

17.  The Story of Wheat (from the Economist.com)

How can N2O emissions be reduced?   

Reducing N2O Emissions

Reducing N2O

 Radioisotope Exercise


Independence of YP0 and RI

Independence of YP0 and RI-2

Inverse Distance Square Law
Isaac Newton and 2060
Newton Accomplishments

Class Introduction

Class Reading (2014)

N Cycle

1. Cheerios (USA Today)  

2. Nitrogen Cycle Ninja

3. N Deposits in Rainfall

4. Seasonal and long-term changes in nitrate-nitrogen content of well water in Oklahoma.  1997.  J. Environmental Quality, 26:1632-1637.

5. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

6. Livestock Methane Emissions

7. Mitigation Options for Global Warming (Science, 1992)

8.  Priming Effect of 15N Labeled Fertilizers on Soil Nitrogen

9. Equations for Estimating the Amount of Nitrogen Mineralized from Crop Residues Vigil and Kissel, 1991

HOMEWORK-1 (% global warming due to animal agriculture) (RESULTS)

Myth of NItrogen Fertilization for Soil Carbon Sequestration

Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilizers Deplete Soil Nitrogen: A Global Dilemma for Sustainable Cereal Production

12. Need for a Soil-Based Approach in Managing Nitrogen Fertilizers for Profitable Corn Production

13. Independence of YP0 and RI
14. Independence of YPO and RI2

(reviewer response 1)
(reviewer response 2)

15. Westerman, NH4 and NO3 Accumulation

16. Soil Plant Inorganic N Buffering, 1995

17. Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency, 1999, AJ
(excel file 2010)

18. Global Population and Nitrogen Cycle (V. Smil)



19.  Bray Mobility Concept (A Nutrient Mobility Concept of Soil-Palnt Relationships)

20. Investment in By-Plant Technology


Presentation, November 5, 2012, Dr. Bobby Stewart

Multilingual Crop Nutrient Removal Calculator


GM crops, world statistics


Consumers afraid of Biotech?

World Watch Institute, Is Meat Sustainable?

IPNI Crop Nutrient Deficiency Image Collection

Yield Trends are Insufficient to Double Global Production

 Feeding our World (link)

2 lbs N/bu of wheat (recommendation)


FINAL Exam, Friday, May 2, 2014 , 8:00-9:20

First Hour Exam 2004

Second Hour Exam 2002

Statistical Applications




Final Exam 2008 KEY